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In September 2021, the Counter Extremism Project (CEP), in partnership with Parallel Networks, was awarded a FY2021 grant from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to set up the Radicalization, Rehabilitation, Reintegration, and Recidivism Network (4R Network).

About the 4R Network

To date, there exists no formal, in-prison recidivism reduction program tailored for convicted terrorists, nor a fully realized post-release initiative to support the reentry and reintegration of terrorism-related offenders. The 4R Network seeks to fill this particular knowledge and programming gap by constructing this national ecosystem of multiagency and multi-sectoral stakeholders.

To guarantee that every stakeholder tasked with supervising extremist offenders in-prison and/or in-community in the U.S. has adequate knowledge and access to evidence-based reintegration support mechanisms, the 4R Network will establish a sustainable community of practice with cross-cutting relationships and enhanced expertise by:

  • partnerships

    Bringing together key stakeholders directly or indirectly involved in the extremist offender reintegration and recidivism reduction arena

  • knowledge

    Enhancing knowledge and awareness of best practices in the field of reintegration and rehabilitation of extremist offenders

  • conversation

    Connecting those tasked with the monitoring and supervision of extremist offenders to professional practitioners with expertise in reintegration and deradicalization-oriented programming

All knowledge and practices disseminated within the 4R Network also pulls first-hand insights from CEP and PN’s one-of-a-kind Alternative Pathways (AP), an in-prison/in-community reintegration and recidivism reduction program funded through a FY2020 DHS grant.


The 4R Network will serve as a national ecosystem of actors bound by common standards to facilitate a whole-of-society approach to extremist offender reintegration and recidivism reduction that guarantees every actor tasked with supervising extremist offenders in-prison and/or in-community in the United States has adequate knowledge and access to evidence-based support for reintegration.

Theory of Change

The combined and mutually-reinforcing efforts of Alternative Pathways and the 4R Network are seeking to ultimately:

“Facilitate the safe, healthy and dignified rehabilitation and reintegration of violent extremist-affiliated criminal offenders in the United States while decreasing the likelihood of in-prison radicalization and increasing local resilience to violent extremism over the long-term.”

To achieve this, supervision and support efforts need to provide tailored services that meet the needs for reintegrating extremists—both in-prison and post-release.

By pulling from fields such as preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE), trauma-informed care, psychology, sociology, violence prevention, peacebuilding, neuroscience, social work, recidivism reduction, reentry and reintegration, systems and network theory, and other related disciplines, we address reintegration and rehabilitation through a whole-of-society approach.

This requires synchronizing multidisciplinary expertise that can advance the knowledge necessary to identify multi-level mechanisms, obstacles, and facilitators for effectively and efficiently supporting the reintegration and rehabilitation of extremism-related offenders in a way that reduces the risk of recidivism and enhances public safety.

The 4R Network is the first step in that direction.

Download our Theory of Change below